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Vol. 37, no. 3 (Fall 1995)



Nominal Classification in Australia Kristina Sands 247
A Plethora of Plurals: Inflection for Number in Upper Chehalis M. Dale Kinkade 347
Euphemism in Arabic: A Gricean Interpretation Mohammed Farghal 366

Book Reviews

Theory Groups and the Study of Language in North America: A Social History (Stephen O. Murray) Charles F. Hockett 379
The Thompson Language (Laurence C. Thompson and M. Terry Thompson) Paul D. Kroeber 387
The Twin Stories: Participant Coding in Yagua Narrative (Thomas Edward Payne) Desmond C. Derbyshire 392
Koasati Dictionary (Geoffrey Kimball, with Bell Abbey, Martha John, and Ruth Poncho) T. Dale Nicklas 394
Southern Cheyenne Women's Songs (Virginia Giglio) Thomas Vennum, Jr. 397
Haakusteeyí, Our Culture: Tlingit Life Stories (Nora Marks Dauenhauer and Richard Dauenhauer, editors) Sergei Kan 399
O Brave New Words! Native American Loanwords in Current English (Charles L. Cutler) Allan R. Taylor 404
The Crucible of Carolina: Essays in the Development of Gullah Language and Culture (Michael Montgomery, editor) John H. McWhorter 406
African Languages, Development and the State (Richard Fardon and Graham Furniss, editors) Debra Spitulnik 409
To Remember the Faces of the Dead: The Plentitude of Memory in Southwestern New Britain (Thomas Maschio) Michael W. Scott 412
Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register (Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan, editors) Carol Myers-Scotton and Janet M. Fuller 413

Book Notes 417


Nominal Classification in Australia

Kristina Sands
Australian National University

Abstract. There has been little comparative work on nominal classification in Australia. In this paper the different types of classification in Australian languages are surveyed and then a comparative study is made of the morphological forms utilized in classification. Tentative origins for the major noun class affixes are put forward and the conclusion is drawn that Proto-Australian was a language in which a limited set of generic classifiers were used, in which there was a (pronominal) feminine affix for female sex, and in which a distinction between human and nonhuman may have been made in a demonstrative.

A Plethora of Plurals:
Inflection for Number in Upper Chehalis

M. Dale Kinkade
University of British Columbia

Abstract. Upper Chehalis, a Salishan language, has six different general ways of forming plurals of arguments and modifiers. Two of them apply to specific lexical classes, but the other four can all occur on the same items to indicate different kinds of plurality. To complicate matters further, two of the four can cooccur with each of the other two. It is difficult to sort out the meanings each had when the language was actively spoken. Fortunately, Boas's field notes provide a small number of forms with contrasting plurals, so that it is possible to get some idea of how each was used. C1 V C2 reduplication, which is used as a general plural elsewhere in Salish, has been restricted in Upper Chehalis to predicates, where it indicates 'distributed plural'. This narrowing of the function of reduplication left a gap for pluralizing arguments, and this gap was filled with several different kinds of plural.

Euphemism in Arabic:
A Gricean Interpretation

Mohammed Farghal
Yarmouk University

Abstract. This paper investigates the nature of euphemism in Arabic. It shows that speakers of Arabic employ four major devices for euphemizing: figurative expressions, circumlocutions, remodelings, and antonyms. The study argues that there is close interaction between the Politeness Principle (Leech 1983) and the Cooperative Principle's maxims of conversation (Grice 1975). Most importantly, it is argued that Arabic euphemisms flout one or more of the maxims of conversation, thus giving rise to Particularized Conversational Implicatures. Consequently, floutings are shown to play an important role in lexical choices in addition to their well-established roles in structural and discoursal choices.

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