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Vol. 57, no. 4 (Winter 2015)


Arapaho Historical Morphology Ives Goddard 345

Evidential Determiners in Nivaĉle Analía Gutiérrez 412

Research Note

A Koasati Supernatural Being Geoffrey Kimball 444

Book Reviews

Arapaho Stories, Songs, and Prayers: A Bilingual Anthology (Andrew Cowell, Alonzo Moss, Sr., and William J. C’Hair) H. C. Wolfart 448
Culture, Interaction and Person Reference in an Australian Language: An Ethnography of Bininj Gunwok Communication (Murray Garde) William B. McGregor 453
A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan (Li Jiang) David Bradley 456
Publications Received 460


Arapaho Historical Morphology

Ives Goddard
Smithsonian Institution

Abstract. Although the phonological innovations that derive Arapaho from Proto-Algonquian are extensive, the historical origins of Arapaho inflectional morphology can be traced in almost all cases. Some new morphological categories and patterns have emerged, and some functions of inherited material have changed. The data are drawn from grammars, early texts, and dictionaries, supplemented by sound recordings and fieldwork. The examination of data from these varied sources in the context of historical analysis sheds light on synchronic Arapaho phonology, including pitch accent, tone, and syllabification. Improved transcriptions of paradigmatically related forms make possible an historical explanation of the major accentual patterns.

Evidential Determiners in Nivaĉle

Analía Gutiérrez
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

Abstract. Earlier work on Nivaĉle (Mataguayan, Argentina and Paraguay) claims that the determiners na, ja, and ca introduce entities that are known by the speaker, while pa is used for entities that are unknown or are known by report. On the basis of fieldwork, I argue that the primary distinction is instead one of evidentiality, defined as the encoding of source of information. The determiners na, ja, and ca indicate the speaker has or had firsthand sensory evidence for the existence of an entity, where the preferred evidence type is visual. Conversely, pa is used whenever the speaker lacks that type of evidence.

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